Volume 89, Issue 1 p. 129-136
Special Section Commentary

Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development

Cindy Sage

Corresponding Author

Cindy Sage

Sage Associates

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Cindy Sage, Sage Associates, 1396 Danielson Road, Santa Barbara, CA 93108. Electronic mail may be sent to [email protected].Search for more papers by this author
Ernesto Burgio

Ernesto Burgio

International Society of Doctors for Environment (ISDE) Scientific Office

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First published: 15 May 2017
Citations: 38

[Correction made on June 13, 2017, after first online publication on May 15, 2017: This article has been recategorized as a Special Section Commentary.] [Article updated on December 21, 2017: Author Conflict of Interest disclosure statement has been added.]

Cindy Sage is the co-owner of Sage Associates and its subsidiary, Sage EMF Design, an environmental sciences consulting firm that is engaged by public and private entities for advice regarding environmental constraints to land use, including non-ionizing radiation. She has consulted with the California Department of Education and is the co-editor of the BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for A Biologically-based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields, and a founding member of the BioInitiative Working Group. She has volunteered extensively for advocacy groups doing science in the public interest.


Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes due to exposure to wireless technologies. Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems have been reported in numerous studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and RFR exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors. Technology benefits can be realized by adopting wired devices for education to avoid health risk and promote academic achievement.