Volume 74, Issue 4 p. 1006-1020

Morning-to-Afternoon Increases in Cortisol Concentrations for Infants and Toddlers at Child Care: Age Differences and Behavioral Correlates

Sarah E. Watamura

Sarah E. Watamura

1 Cornell University, 2 University of Minnesota, 3 University of Minnesota  [email protected]

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1 Bonny Donzella

Bonny Donzella

1 Cornell University, 2 University of Minnesota, 3 University of Minnesota  [email protected]

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2 Jan Alwin

Jan Alwin

1 Cornell University, 2 University of Minnesota, 3 University of Minnesota  [email protected]

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2 Megan R. Gunnar

Megan R. Gunnar

1 Cornell University, 2 University of Minnesota, 3 University of Minnesota  [email protected]

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3
First published: 08 July 2003
Citations: 213

Abstract

This study examined salivary cortisol, a stress–sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hormone in 20 infants (12 females; M age=10.8 months) and 35 toddlers (20 females; M age=29.7 months) in full-day, center-based child care. Samples were taken at approximately 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. at child care and at home. At child care, 35% of infants and 71% of toddlers showed a rise in cortisol across the day; at home, 71% of infants and 64% of toddlers showed decreases. Toddlers who played more with peers exhibited lower cortisol. Controlling age, teacher-reported social fearfulness predicted higher afternoon cortisol and larger cortisol increases across the day at child care. This phenomenon may indicate context-specific activation of the HPA axis early in life.